SETHY the Ist , his history

( probably : 1294-1279 B.C )

About dates we can find according egyptologist studies :

1321-1307 (Redford)1312-1298 (Drioton)1308-1294 (Gardiner)
1306-1292 (Baines & Mlek)1306-1290 (Reeves & Wilkinson)1294-1279 (British Museum, Grimal)
1290-1279 (Helck)1290-1279 (Vandersleyn)1294-1279 (Desroches Noblecourt)

  1. The origins .
  2. Familial contexte .
  3. The begeening .
  4. Wars .


Sethy was born probably under the end of the reign of the pharaoh Ay , perhaps in the beginning the reign of Horemheb .

The Sethy's grand father beared the same name and was an officeer of the charioties. He was born , probably , under the reign of Akhenaton ; or Tutankhamun . The origin place of this family was situated in the oriental Delta ; perhaps in the neiberhood of the north of the ancient city of Avaris , the city of Hykss , Asian people who dominated Egypt between the Middle Kingdom and the New Kingdom ( approximately 1700-1530 B.C.) . A stela found in Tanis ( stela having been displaced under the XXIth dynasty from Pi-Ramses to Tanis ) , the XXIth dynasty's capital , wears the trace of an area of the Year 400 . This is very exceptional if we know the manner whose Egyptians dated their chronology ( see problem of dating ) . This stele is dedicated by Ramses II to the god Seth , represented under an Asian form . Behind Ramses II stands a personnage who wears titles : "the prince-regent , mayor of Thebes , royal scribe , chariotee officer , gouvernor of the fortress of Tjarou , town in the oriental delta" .
This personnage could have been Sethy the father of Ramses I . This year 400 in fact is referenced to this personnage remains enigmatic at the present time .

The mention of a wife Tiou would make mind that this Sethy could be the great father of Sethy Ist .


If we emit the hypothesis that Sethy Ist had a thirty of year in her advent, if we consider that he reigned about 17 years we obtain nearly fifty years when he died , this fact is confirmed when we see state of his mummy .

He was a Paramessou ' son , the vizir ofHoremheb and of the lady Satre ; they reign both on the throne of Egypt . The name Paramessou wass transformed into Ramses ; according to his titulature ( see the protocoles) :

  1. Horus Name , "Strong bull who who rejeunate the royalty" ,
  2. Nebty Name , "whom appears instead of King like Atoum" ,
  3. Golden Horus Name , "who re-establish the Powerfull on the Two Lands" ,
  4. Nesout Bity Name , "Firm is the power of R" ,
  5. Son of R Name : , "R beget him" .

The reign of Ramses I did not exceed no more than 2 years . It's probable that Sethy Ist bears under Horemheb le title of vizir, in the same time as his father. Under the reign of Ramses Ist his son had to wear the title of Prince-Regent . Notice that the future Ramses II was born under the reign ofHoremheb .

Sethy's mother beared the title "The great mother of the King , Lady of the Two Lands : Satr, endowed of life" ( see= Tomb number 38 in the Valley of the Queens) .

The vizir Sethy married a Lady that was , so called , Touy who is here designated as " Wife of the god , the great royal wife , mistress of the Two Lands" ; she was , if we believe into a low relief found at Medinet-Habou , in the temple enclosure of the Temple of Ramses III ; a doughter of 2 celebrities : Raia and ...ouia.

Raia was general lieutenant of the chariotee , and as for mother . ...ouia name that we can restore in Rouia she is designated as "mother of royal mother" ; the restitution of this name in Rouia is well confirm compared to the surface of the the gap , a possible lion ( rw ) ; and this restoration corresponds , according to the onomastique ( onomastique = a branch of the lexicology which studies the origin of proper nouns ) of this period .

As we can see, Touy was issued from the same clan of her spouse Sethy ; a so called family of soldiers . Touy is reputed to be strong personality , imprint of wisdom ; she influenced , it is true, the reign of her son Ramses II. She preserved a role non negligible under the reign of the former ; she participated in negotiations that ended to the fanous treaty of Peace in the year XXI , between Ramses II and Hittites. Touy maintained a correspondence with Poudoukhepa , the wife of the great king of Hatti (Hittite) , Hattousil . During this period the Queen-Mother was qualified as Mout-Touy, which means "the mother Touy" . She died in the 23th year of the reign of her son . She was buried in the so called Valley Set-Neferou The place of beauties , that Champollion has named : The Valley of the Queens . She was burried in the tomb number 80 ; situated to the west of that Nefertary , the well loved wife of Ramses II . This tomb (number 80 ) has been recently rummaged by French . We found , even , in this tomb a phial of the Great royal wife Bentanat , daughter and wife of Ramses II ; a moving homage from this queen to her grand-mother . A short while after , in the year 26 , died the principal wife of Ramses II: Nefertary ; name probably pronounced according to the vocalisation heard by Hittites and transcribed in Hittite cuneiforms : Naptera ; the Nefertary's tomb wears the number 66 .

Sethy and Touy had at least a daughter , well known by the excavations of Goffrey T.Martin in Saqqarah . This tomb has been rummaged in the end of 80's and was near those of Horemheb. Her name was Tia , and curiously she married to a celebrity who was called also , Tia!

One question about so-called son or sons from Sethy Ist.

  1. The first question concerns a prince figured in Karnak that could have as name(Neb-en-khaset-neb). Name whose we don't finds no trace in egyptology. A sene on north wall of the Great Hypostyle Hall in Karnak, shows Sethy during of the triumphal return from the country of Tehenou one prince precede the king:

    In the final gap of this text we could restore : Neb-en-khaset-neb .

  2. An other mystery focuses on a low other relief in Karnak ;
    always the same north wall . Sethy I is represented , upright , in processing to massacre Libyans . Behind him , a small prince is figured . If we look near , according to Breasted , we can see that this figure covers an other celebrity Mhy . The former would be furthermore , represented 6 time on this wall . Breasted ( see the scene in front ) made him an eldest prince of Ramses II . According to Murname he will be a high official . Ramses II , following the ramesside iconography , which privileged children of the King , would have deleted this figure and would have replaced it by his name . The text gives then :

    . We can translate thus : "the regent , the older son of the King , issued from hid belly , Ramsessou"

  3. Finally we find the case of Ramses II ; was he named coregent or not ? An argument , in favor of this thesis is a low-relief of the Temple of Millions of Years of Sethy Ist that represents a scene of coronation .

    It concerns the regent Ramses in presence of his father with as text :

    , that we can translate into Words to be said by Amon-R , the master of thrones of the two lands , the liked son , the master of the Two lands , ousermaatr , who has been established"

    ; then after a repetition :

    "you have established crowns for you ... order that your father R makes this countries in peace , as well as all countries under (your) sandals" .

    Sethy is showned alive , since qualified di ankh djed-t , it is to tell "endowed life eternally and forever" in the presence the god Khonsou :


    Sethy took as name of crown: Men-Maat-R, which meams : "stable is the truth of R"; and we think about the prononciation, according always the hittites texts: Min-pah-taria.

    We know a few data on activity of Sethy under his father ' s reign . The only we know are found in dedicatory texts to his father . The stelae of Buhen show a good idea ( cf . Clio II page 498 ) . This stela was erected in year 1 , the four month of season of chemu , the thirteen day .

    We know , too , one another stela dedicaceted by Sethy to his father Ramses , it was also erected in Buhen , but dated from year 2 of Ramses I .

    Probably he built , in the begeening of his reign a little chapel devoted to his father . This chapel , actually , is unfoundable ; we found some informations in Museums . This chapel was situated in the north part of Sethy Ist ' s temple , see my Shma for a map of Abydos . A large study was setted by J . J . Clre in 1957 in the tome 11 of the Revue d'Egyptologie , pages 1 to 38 .

    Into this chapel we had to find a stela which is known as under the name of "dedicatory stela" of Abydos , and presently erected in the temple of Sethy Ith . We find , too , a statue of Ramses Ist which was enclosed in the "cela" of his funary temple . On back of this statue ( without head ) we could read in filiation respect :

    " He ( = Sethy Ist ) make life his name ( = those of Ramses Ist ) in the thinite nome and , he made him place in his cenotaphe . "

    04 . WARS

    to be continued....!

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